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The principal parts of a simple sentence are the subject and the predicate. They are indispensable.

The subject denotes something that is spoken about. It is subdivided into a group subject (expanded), a complex subject (expressed by a predicative construction)( For me to do it is dangerous; His having done that surprised me), a formal subject which introduces the genuine subject ( It is strange his doing that ), an impersonal subject ( It rains), a rrhematic subject( A woman entered the room), a thematic subject( The woman came up to the window).

The predicate denotes an action, state or property of the thing expressed by the subject. It agrees with the subject logically. A single subject denoting multitude agrees with a plural predicate ( The great majority are satisfied with the outcomes of the elections).

Predicates are classified into simple and compound ones.

A simple predicate can be simple verbal, simple nominal, infinitival and reflexive. A simple verbal predicate is expressed by a verb in any form representing any category (person, number, tense, aspect, correlation, voice and mood). A simple nominal predicate is expressed by a noun or an adjective ( He clever?! He a general?!). The nature of the nominal predicate can be interpreted transformationally or by means of the method of deep and surface structures( He is clever. I do not believe. He is a general. I do not believe). An infinitival predicate is usually found in exclamatory-interrogative sentences ( Mr Domby to divorce his wife?! => Mr. Domby divorces his wife. I do not believe). In a reflexive predicate the element self cannot be omitted ( I enjoyed myself in the park). To the simple verbal predicates some scholars refer a phraseological predicate ( He was probably losing his marbles) (going crazy).

Compound predicates are subdivided into compound nominal predicates, compound modal predicates, compound aspect predicates; double predicates andpredicates of double orientation. A compound nominal predicate is built up on the model a link- verb + a predicative. The number of link- verbs is great and it is still growing larger( He is a poet. He turned pale. He was going mad). Predicatives are most frequently expressed by nouns and adjectives. A verbal aspect predicate consists of a verb denoting the beginning, development or the end of an action and a non-finite form of a verv (He came running. He got going. He began reading. He continued speaking). A compound verbal modal predicate consists of a modal verb (or a modal equivalent) and an infinive (indefinite, continuous or perfect (She could have danced all night). Among compound predicates we find mixed types (a compound modal nominal predicate, a compound modalaspectual predicate ( He must be a poet. He may begin to attend classes).

A double predicate consists of two parts, verbal and nominal, the former being an explicit predicate, the latter being an implicit predicate. It can be described transformationally (He married young=>He married. He was young). The predicate of double orientation consists of two parts, the latter oriented upon the subject of this sentence, the former oriented upon a subject beyond the limits of this sentence which can be proved transformationally ( He is said to have done it => They say that he has done it).


The Principal Parts of a Simple Sentence - понятие и виды. Классификация и особенности категории "The Principal Parts of a Simple Sentence"2017-2018.