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An object is a secondary part which depends upon the predicate. It is verb -oriented. Logical relations between a predicate- verb and its object are various. An object is indispensable (obligatory) when it is used after verbs of incomplete predication (to be, seem, appear, smell, take). Such verbs are insufficient by themselves, structurally, communicatively and semantically incomplete and need an object or an adverbial modifier (They took the boy to the theatre). By means of the transformational procedure of deletion we can deprive the verb of its object and see whether it is complete or incomplete (They broke the thing gently => *they broke gently, where the sign * means “ungrammatical”). Traditionally objects are classified into direct, indirect, prepositional and cognate (родственный) ( He smiled a winner’s smile. He lived a happy life). In thecognate object the verb and the noun, functioning as the object, are of the same root). We can distinguish a complex object which is expressed by a predicative construction with an infinitive, a participle or a Gerund ( I remember my mother singing a song to me. I saw him cross the street. I heard her singing. I found the house ruined). We can also distiguish a formal object which introduces a genuine object ( I find it strange to go there).

According to their semantic roles objects are divided by professors Burlakova, Ivanova and Pocheptsov into the object of the object ( I read the book), the object of the addressee (He gives it to me), the object of the subject( I was blackmailed by him).

An Object - понятие и виды. Классификация и особенности категории "An Object"2017-2018.