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Тема статьи: A Compound Sentence
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Problems within a compound sentence are:

1. general notion of coordination and types of coordination;

2. the semantic volume of the coordinating conjunctions and, but, or, for;

3. the stylistic importance of parataxis.

A compound sentence has always been considered as a weak link; it was thought not to be a sentence proper. Kruizinga speaks about loose syntactic groups, not independent sentences. There were attempts to exclude the notion of a compound sentence or to employ new terms to express more exactly the grammatical peculiarities of this type: a double or a multiple sentence, a duplication of the pattern, a multiplication of the pattern: She would not eat anything and she would not sleep at all.

A compound sentence is based on coordination (parataxis) and it consists in syntactical equality of two or more parts (clauses), but this syntactical equality does not presuppose their logical semantical and communicative equality. Clauses of a compound sentence constitute a semantical, syntactical and communicative whole.

A compound sentence is structured multivariously. It can comprise 2,3,4 or more coordinate clauses which can be joined to each other syndetically, asyndetically (without connectives) or in a mixed way.

Asyndetic connection can be exemplified by the sentences The larks sprang up in front of his feet, the air was full of butterflies, the sweet fragrance rose from the wild grasses (3 clauses). I span, I wove, I kept the house, I nursed the sick, I made the garden.

Here is the sentence with a mixed coordination: Your children are murdered, your husband gone, a corpse in your bathtub, and your house is wrecked.

Types of coordination are copulative (and), disjunctive (or),adversative (but), causative-consecutive (for).

Each type of coordination is expressed by certain connectives, which are conjunctions, conjunctive adverbs and pronouns, particles, conjunctive phrases: and, but, or, for, moreover, however, whereas, either…or, on the other hand, to say nothing of…, etc.

Copulative coordination expresses simultaneous, parallel actions:

I am the poet of the body and I am the poet of the soul: the pleasures of heaven are with me and the pains of hell are with me (Whitman)

Adversative coordination denotes contrast. The second part contradicts to what is expressed in the first part:Sorrow knocked at my door, but I was afraid; ambition called me, but I dreaded the chances…(Edgar Lee Masters).

Disjunctive coordination expresses choice: Did he not give her everything or was she not everything to him.

In a sentence with a causative-consecutive coordination one clause expresses the cause of the consequence which is to be found in another clause.: Do not weep, maiden, for war is kind…(St. Crane). Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven (The Holy Scriptures)(The Bible).

Coordination is expressed primarily by coordinating conjunctions and,but, or, for, which are polysemantic, polyfunctional; each conjunction comprises the properties of the rest of coordinating conjunctions.

Andis the most polyfunctional conjunction. It can substitute for other coordinating conjunctions in most cases.

Since Old English till the present time and expresses all kind of relations: copulative, disjunctive, adversative, causative-consecutive, which can be proved transformationally. And joins clauses presenting details of one whole, it can render relative connection, this connection is encountered within a complex sentence: His book was published and this pleased his vanity. => His book was published which pleased his vanity ( a continuative attributive clause)

The distinction between a compound and a complex sentence is neutralized here and we analyze it as composite sentence.

And joins clauses with simultaneous or subsequent actions. It can express adversative relations (Love was offered me and I shrank from its disillusions);adversative-concessive relations (уступительно-противительные) ( I shrank away from them and I had an acute nostalgia for them. (=> though I shrank…); condition( Follow and you will see (=> if you follow…) ; consequence (The hour was midnight and no Forsytes remained in sight (as the hour was midnight, no Forsytes remained in sight), (You wanted her silenced and I ‘ve silenced her. W.S.Maugham).

Prof. I.R.Galperin distinguished a peculiar coordinative connection , calling it the gap-sentence link. It bridges a semantic gap (a semantic leap) (She and that fellow ought to be suffering, and they were in Italy. J. Galsworthy). This sort of coordination is to be found in represented speech, which represents the unuttered thoughts of characters in the writings of J. Galsworthy, K. Mansfield, D. Parker. It expresses the underlying message, suggestions, implications and associations.

The adversative conjunction but can also be polyfunctional in syntagmatics. It can express concession (though) (New skies the exile finds, but the heart is still the same. M.Helprin). It can indicate a change or break in narration or simply a turn to a new theme (He was quite a gentleman, but she had known it from the first).

As parataxis (coordination) is less demanding than subordination, it is of greater stylistic value. It denotes a semantic leap,, the suggested, the unsaid, the implied. K.Mansfield, E.Hemingway, W.Saroyan masterfully employ it. In Hemingway’s writings parataxis is the basis for reiteration. It appeals to the subconscious. It implies something timeless, immortal, infinite. The Biblical text (both in The Old Testament and The New Testament) is primarily based on parataxis which expresses profound, solemn, eternal problems. E.Hemingway borrowed parataxis from the Bible to create his famous iceberg technique.


The Theory of the Complex Sentence

The problems to be discussed within the complex sentence are:

I. The general notion of a complex sentence.

2. The status of the subordinate clause.

3. Classifications of subordinate clauses.

3.1. The principles of classifications.

3.2. Varieties of subordinate clauses.

4. Connections between the principal and the subordinate clause.

5. Neutralization between subordination and coordination.

6. The character of the subordinating conjunction.

7. Levels of subordination,

8. Syntactic processes in the complex sentence.

9. Communicative dynamism within a composite sentence (compound and complex) and a supra-phrasal unit.

A Compound Sentence - понятие и виды. Классификация и особенности категории "A Compound Sentence"2017-2018.