⭐⭐⭐ Единый реферат-центр

Главная » Рефераты » Текст работы «Ekonomiko-geographical description of Australia»


Ekonomiko-geographical description of Australia

Acquaintance with basic lists, etimology, history of foundation, political system, composition, external and military operations, geographical position, climatic terms and environment, economic and demographic situations, cultural life of Australia.

Дисциплина: География и экономическая география
Вид работы: реферат
Язык: английский
Дата добавления: 19.01.2015
Размер файла: 109 Kb
Просмотров: 6153
Загрузок: 51

Все приложения, графические материалы, формулы, таблицы и рисунки работы на тему: Ekonomiko-geographical description of Australia (предмет: География и экономическая география) находятся в архиве, который можно скачать с нашего сайта.
Приступая к прочтению данного произведения (перемещая полосу прокрутки браузера вниз), Вы соглашаетесь с условиями открытой лицензии Creative Commons «Attribution» («Атрибуция») 4.0 Всемирная (CC BY 4.0)
.

Текст работыСкачать файл







Хочу скачать данную работу! Нажмите на слово скачать
Чтобы скачать работу бесплатно нужно вступить в нашу группу ВКонтакте. Просто кликните по кнопке ниже. Кстати, в нашей группе мы бесплатно помогаем с написанием учебных работ.

Через несколько секунд после проверки подписки появится ссылка на продолжение загрузки работы.
Сколько стоит заказать работу? Бесплатная оценка
Повысить оригинальность данной работы. Обход Антиплагиата.
Сделать работу самостоятельно с помощью "РЕФ-Мастера" ©
Узнать подробней о Реф-Мастере
РЕФ-Мастер - уникальная программа для самостоятельного написания рефератов, курсовых, контрольных и дипломных работ. При помощи РЕФ-Мастера можно легко и быстро сделать оригинальный реферат, контрольную или курсовую на базе готовой работы - Ekonomiko-geographical description of Australia.
Основные инструменты, используемые профессиональными рефератными агентствами, теперь в распоряжении пользователей реф.рф абсолютно бесплатно!
Как правильно написать введение?
Подробней о нашей инструкции по введению
Секреты идеального введения курсовой работы (а также реферата и диплома) от профессиональных авторов крупнейших рефератных агентств России. Узнайте, как правильно сформулировать актуальность темы работы, определить цели и задачи, указать предмет, объект и методы исследования, а также теоретическую, нормативно-правовую и практическую базу Вашей работы.
Как правильно написать заключение?
Подробней о нашей инструкции по заключению
Секреты идеального заключения дипломной и курсовой работы от профессиональных авторов крупнейших рефератных агентств России. Узнайте, как правильно сформулировать выводы о проделанной работы и составить рекомендации по совершенствованию изучаемого вопроса.
Всё об оформлении списка литературы по ГОСТу Как оформить список литературы по ГОСТу?
Рекомендуем
Учебники по дисциплине: География и экономическая география


Краткое описание документа: Ekonomiko-geographical description of Australia реферат по дисциплине География и экономическая география. Понятие, сущность и виды, 2017.

Как скачать? | + Увеличить шрифт | - Уменьшить шрифт





реферат по дисциплине География и экономическая география на тему: Ekonomiko-geographical description of Australia; понятие и виды, классификация и структура, 2015-2016, 2017 год.

Australia

The course Work of Krim Yulia Group 1 "J" Zarafshan 2010

Australia

Commonwealth of Australia

Flag

Coat of arms

Anthem:Advance Australia FairN1

Capital

Canberra

Largest city

Sydney

Official languages

NoneN2

National language

English (de facto)N2

Demonym

Australian,Aussie[1][2] (colloquial)

Government

Federal parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy, see Government of Australia

-

Monarch

Queen Elizabeth II

-

Governor-General

Quentin Bryce

-

Prime Minister

Kevin Rudd

Independence

from the United Kingdom

-

Constitution

1 January 1901

-

Statute of Westminster

11 December 1931

-

Statute of Westminster Adoption Act

9 October 1942 (with effect from 3 September 1939)

-

Australia Act

3 March 1986

Area

-

Total

7,617,930km2(6th)2,941,299sqmi

Population

-

2010estimate

22,115,847[3](51st)

-

2006census

19,855,288[4]

-

Density

2.833/km2(232nd)7.3/sqmi

GDP(PPP)

2008estimate

-

Total

$799.054 billion[5](18th)

-

Per capita

$36,918[5](15th)

GDP (nominal)

2008estimate

-

Total

$1.013 trillion[5](14th)

-

Per capita

$46,824[5](13th)

HDI(2007)

^ 0.970[6](veryhigh)(2nd)

Currency

Australian dollar (AUD)

Time zone

variousN3 (UTC+8 to +10.5)

-

Summer(DST)

variousN3(UTC+8 to +11.5)

Drives on the

left

Internet TLD

.au

Calling code

+61

Australia (pronounced /??strejlj?/ ?-STRAYL-y? or /R?strejlj?/ o-STRAYL-y?,[7] or more formally as /T??strejli?/ aw-STRAY-lee-?), officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent (the world's smallest),[8][9] the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans.N4 Neighbouring countries include Indonesia, East Timor, and Papua New Guinea to the north, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, and New Caledonia to the north-east, and New Zealand to the southeast.

For some 40,000 years before European settlement commenced in the late 18th century, the Australian mainland and Tasmania were inhabited by around 250 individual nations[10] of indigenous Australians.[11] After sporadic visits by fishermen from the immediate north, and European discovery by Dutch explorers in 1606,[12] the eastern half of Australia was claimed by the British in 1770 and initially settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales, founded on 26 January 1788. The population grew steadily in the following years; the continent was explored, and during the 19th century another five largely self-governing Crown Colonies were established.

On 1 January 1901, the six colonies became a federation, and the Commonwealth of Australia was formed. Since Federation, Australia has maintained a stable liberal democratic political system and remains a Commonwealth realm. The population is 22 million, with approximately 60% concentrated in and around the mainland state capitals of Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, and Adelaide. The nation's capital city is Canberra, located in the Australian Capital Territory.

Australia is a developed country, with a prosperous multicultural society and excellent results in many international comparisons of national performance such as human development, quality of life, health care, life expectancy, public education, economic freedom, and the protection of civil liberties and political rights.[13] Australian cities routinely rank among the world's highest in terms of cultural offerings and quality of life. It is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, ANZUS, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, South Pacific Forum, and the World Trade Organization.

Etymology

Artist's rendition of Port Jackson, the site where Sydney was established, viewed from the South Head. (From A Voyage to Terra Australis.)

The name Australia is derived from the Latin australis, meaning "southern". Legends of an "unknown land of the south" (terra australis incognita) date back to Roman times and were commonplace in medieval geography but were not based on any documented knowledge of the continent.

The first recorded use of the word Australia in English was in 1625, in "A note of Australia del Espiritu Santo, written by Master Hakluyt", published by Samuel Purchas in Hakluytus Posthumus.[14] The Dutch adjectival form Australische was used by Dutch East India Company officials in Batavia to refer to the newly discovered land to the south in 1638. Australia was used in a 1693 translation of Les Aventures de Jacques Sadeur dans la Decouverte et le Voyage de la Terre Australe, a 1676 French novel by Gabriel de Foigny under the pen-name Jacques Sadeur.[15] Alexander Dalrymple then used it in An Historical Collection of Voyages and Discoveries in the South Pacific Ocean (1771), to refer to the entire South Pacific region. In 1793, George Shaw and Sir James Smith published Zoology and Botany of New Holland, in which they wrote of "the vast island, or rather continent, of Australia, Australasia or New Holland".[16] It also appeared on a 1799 chart by James Wilson.[17]

The name Australia was popularised by Matthew Flinders, who, as early as 1804, pushed for the name to be formally adopted. When preparing his manuscript and charts for his 1814 A Voyage to Terra Australis, he was persuaded by his patron Sir Joseph Banks to use the term Terra Australis as this was the name most familiar to the public. Flinders did so, but allowed himself the footnote:

"Had I permitted myself any innovation on the original term, it would have been to convert it to Australia; as being more agreeable to the ear, and an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth."[18]

This is the only occurrence of the word Australia in that text; but in Appendix III, Robert Brown's General remarks, geographical and systematical, on the botany of Terra Australis, Brown makes use of the adjectival form Australian throughout,[19] this being the first known use of that form.[20] Despite popular conception, the book was not instrumental in the adoption of the name: the name came gradually to be accepted over the following ten years.[21] Lachlan Macquarie, a Governor of New South Wales, subsequently used the word in his dispatches to England, and on 12 December 1817 recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted.[22] In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia.

The word Australia in Australian English is pronounced [??st???lj?, -li?].[23] Since early in the 20th century, the country has been sometimes referred to locally and internationally as Oz.N5 Aussie is common colloquially as an adjective, and as a noun referring to an Australian.N6

History

Human habitation of Australia is estimated to have begun between 42,000 and 48,000 years ago.[24] These first Australians may have been ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians; they may have arrived via land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia. Most of these people were hunter-gatherers, with a complex oral culture and spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime. The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, were originally horticulturalists and hunter-gatherers.

A replica of Lieutenant Cook's ship HM Bark Endeavour in Cooktown Harbour

The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland was made by the Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon, who sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in 1606. During the 17th century, the Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines of what they called New Holland, but they made no attempt at settlement. In 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast of Australia, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain.[25] Cook's discoveries prepared the way for establishment of a new penal colony. The British Crown Colony of New South Wales began a settlement at Port Jackson by Captain Arthur Phillip on 26 January 1788. This date was later to become Australia's national day, Australia Day. Van Diemen's Land, now known as Tasmania, was settled in 1803 and became a separate colony in 1825. The United Kingdom formally claimed the western part of Australia in 1829.

Separate colonies were created from parts of New South Wales: South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, and Queensland in 1859. The Northern Territory was founded in 1911 when it was excised from South Australia. South Australia was founded as a "free province"--that is, it was never a penal colony. Victoria and Western Australia were also founded "free" but later accepted transported convicts.[26] The transportation of convicts to the colony of New South Wales ceased in 1848 after a campaign by the settlers.[27]

Port Arthur, Tasmania was Australia's largest gaol for transported convicts.

The Indigenous Australian population, estimated at 350,000 at the time of European settlement,[28] declined steeply for 150 years following settlement, mainly because of infectious disease.[29] The "Stolen Generations" (removal of Aboriginal children from their families), which historians such as Henry Reynolds have argued could be considered genocide by some definitions,[30] may have contributed to the decline in the indigenous population.[31] Such interpretations of Aboriginal history are disputed by some conservative commentators, such as former Prime Minister Howard, as being exaggerated or fabricated for political or ideological reasons. This debate is known within Australia as the History Wars. Following the 1967 referendum, the Federal government gained the power to implement policies and make laws with respect to Aborigines. Traditional ownership of land--native title--was not recognised until 1992, when the High Court case Mabo v Queensland (No 2) overturned the notion of Australia as terra nullius (literally "no one's land", effectively "empty land") at the time of European occupation.

The Last Post is played at an ANZAC Day ceremony in Port Melbourne, Victoria. Similar ceremonies are held in most suburbs and towns.

A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, and the Eureka Stockade rebellion against mining licence fees in 1854 was an early expression of civil disobedience. Between 1855 and 1890, the six colonies individually gained responsible government, managing most of their own affairs while remaining part of the British Empire. The Colonial Office in London retained control of some matters, notably foreign affairs, defence, and international shipping. On 1 January 1901, federation of the colonies was achieved after a decade of planning, consultation, and voting. The Commonwealth of Australia was born and it became a dominion of the British Empire in 1907. The Federal Capital Territory (later renamed the Australian Capital Territory) was formed from a part of New South Wales in 1911 to provide a location for the proposed new federal capital of Canberra. (Melbourne was the temporary seat of government from 1901 to 1927 while Canberra was being constructed.) The Northern Territory was transferred from the control of the South Australian government to the Commonwealth in 1911.[32] In 1914 Australia joined Britain in fighting World War I, with support from both the outgoing Liberal Party and the incoming Labor Party.[33] The Australians took part in many of the major battles fought on the Western Front.[34] Many Australians regard the defeat of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZACs) at Gallipoli as the birth of the nation--its first major military action.[35] The Kokoda Track campaign is regarded by many as an analogous nation-defining event during World War II.[36]

Britain's Statute of Westminster 1931 formally ended most of the constitutional links between Australia and the UK. Australia adopted it in 1942, but backdated it to the beginning of World War II to confirm the validity of legislation passed by the Australian Parliament during the war. The shock of the UK's defeat in Asia in 1942 and the threat of Japanese invasion caused Australia to turn to the United States as a new ally and protector. Since 1951, Australia has been a formal military ally of the US, under the ANZUS treaty. After World War II, Australia encouraged immigration from Europe; since the 1970s and the abolition of the White Australia policy, immigration from Asia and elsewhere was also encouraged. As a result, Australia's demography, culture, and self-image have been transformed. The final constitutional ties between Australia and the UK were severed with the passing of the Australia Act 1986, ending any British role in the government of the Australian States, and ending judicial appeals to the UK Privy Council.[37] At the 1999 referendum, 54% of Australian voters rejected a proposal to become a republic with a president appointed by two-thirds vote of both houses of the Australian Parliament. Since the election of the Whitlam Government in 1972, there has been an increasing focus on the expansion of ties with other Pacific Rim nations while maintaining close ties with Australia's traditional allies and trading partners.

Politics

Parliament House, Canberra was opened in 1988, replacing the provisional Parliament House building opened in 1927.

The Commonwealth of Australia is a constitutional democracy based on a federal division of powers. The form of government used in Australia is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of government. Queen Elizabeth II is the Queen of Australia, a role that is distinct from her position as monarch of the other Commonwealth realms. The Queen is represented by the Governor-General at federal level and by the Governors at state level. Although the Constitution gives extensive executive powers to the Governor-General, these are normally exercised only on the advice of the Prime Minister. The most notable exercise of the Governor-General's reserve powers outside the Prime Minister's direction was the dismissal of the Whitlam Government in the constitutional crisis of 1975.[38]

There are three branches of government:

· The legislature: the Commonwealth Parliament, comprising the Queen, the Senate, and the House of Representatives; the Queen is represented by the Governor-General, who by convention acts on the advice of his or her Ministers.[39]

· The executive: the Federal Executive Council (the Governor-General as advised by the Executive Councillors); in practice, the councillors are the Prime Minister and Ministers of State.[citation needed]

· The judiciary: the High Court of Australia and other federal courts. Appeals from Australian courts to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in the United Kingdom ceased when the Australia Act of 1986 was passed.[40]

The bicameral Commonwealth Parliament consists of the Queen, the Senate (the upper house) of 76 senators, and a House of Representatives (the lower house) of 150 members. Members of the lower house are elected from single-member constituencies, commonly known as "electorates" or "seats", allocated to states on the basis of population, with each original state guaranteed a minimum of five seats. In the Senate, each state is represented by twelve senators, and each of the territories (the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory) by two. Elections for both chambers are normally held every three years, simultaneously; senators have overlapping six-year terms, since only half of places in the Senate are put to each election unless the cycle is interrupted by a double dissolution. Although the Prime Minister is appointed by the Governor-General, in practice the party with majority support in the House of Representatives forms government and its leader becomes Prime Minister.[41]

There are two major political groups that form government, federally and in the states: the Australian Labor Party, and the Coalition which is a formal grouping of two parties: the Liberal Party and its minor partner, the National Party. Independent members and several minor parties--including the Greens and the Australian Democrats--have achieved representation in Australian parliaments, mostly in upper houses. The Labor Party came to office with Kevin Rudd as Prime Minister following the November 2007 election. Every Australian parliament (federal, state, and territory) then had a Labor government until September 2008 when the Liberal Party formed a minority government in association with the National Party in Western Australia. In the 2004 election, the previous governing coalition led by John Howard won control of the Senate--the first time in more than 20 years that a party (or a coalition) has done so while in government. Voting is compulsory for all enrolled citizens 18 years and over, in each state and territory and at the federal level.[42] Enrolment to vote is compulsory in all jurisdictions except South Australia.[43]

States and territories

Australia has six states--New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, and Western Australia--and two major mainland territories--the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). In most respects these two territories function as states, but the Commonwealth Parliament can override any legislation of their parliaments. By contrast, federal legislation only overrides state legislation in certain areas that are set out in Section 51 of the Australian Constitution; state parliaments retain all residual legislative powers, including powers over education, police, the judiciary, roads, public transport, and local government as these do not fall under the provisions listed in Section 51.[44]

Each state and major mainland territory has its own legislature or parliament: unicameral in the Northern Territory, the ACT, and Queensland, and bicameral in the remaining states. The states are sovereign, though subject to certain powers of the Commonwealth as defined by the Constitution. The lower house is known as the Legislative Assembly (House of Assembly in South Australia and Tasmania) and the upper house is known as the Legislative Council. The head of the government in each state is the Premier, and in each territory the Chief Minister. The Queen is represented in each state by a Governor; an Administrator in the Northern Territory, and the Australian Governor-General in the ACT, have analogous roles.[citation needed]

The federal government directly administers the following territories:

· Jervis Bay Territory, a naval base and sea port for the national capital in land that was formerly part of New South Wales

· Christmas Island and Cocos (Keeling) Islands

· Ashmore and Cartier Islands

· Coral Sea Islands

· Heard Island and McDonald Islands

· Australian Antarctic Territory

Norfolk Island is also technically an external territory; however, under the Norfolk Island Act 1979 it has been granted more autonomy and is governed locally by its own legislative assembly. The Queen is represented by an Administrator, currently Owen Walsh.[45]

Foreign relations and military

The Australian War Memorial

Over recent decades, Australia's foreign relations have been driven by a close association with the United States through the ANZUS pact, and by a desire to develop relationships with Asia and the Pacific, particularly through ASEAN and the Pacific Islands Forum. In 2005 Australia secured an inaugural seat at the East Asia Summit following its accession to the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia. Australia is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, in which the Commonwealth Heads of Government meetings provide the main forum for cooperation. Australia has energetically pursued the cause of international trade liberalisation. It led the formation of the Cairns Group and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation. Australia is a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization, and has pursued several major bilateral free trade agreements, most recently the Australia - United States Free Trade Agreement and Closer Economic Relations with New Zealand. Australia is also negotiating a free trade agreement with Japan, with whom Australia has close economic ties as a trusted partner in the Asia-Pacific region.[46] Australia, along with New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Malaysia, and Singapore are party to the Five Power Defence Arrangements, a regional defence agreement. A founding member country of the United Nations, Australia is strongly committed to multilateralism along with its middle power allies Canada and the Nordic countries, and maintains an international aid program under which some 60 countries receive assistance. The 2005-06 budget provides A$2.5billion for development assistance;[47] as a percentage of GDP, this contribution is less than that recommended in the UN Millennium Development Goals. Australia ranks 7th overall in the Center for Global Development's 2008 Commitment to Development Index.[48]

Australia's armed forces--the Australian Defence Force (ADF)--comprise the Royal Australian Navy (RAN), the Australian Army, and the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF), in total numbering 73,000 personnel (including 53,000 regulars and 20,000 reservists).[49] Australia's military is 68th largest in the world, but one of the world's smallest in per capita terms. All branches of the ADF have been involved in UN and regional peacekeeping (most recently in East Timor, the Solomon Islands, and Sudan), disaster relief, and armed conflict, including the 2003 invasion of Iraq. The government appoints the Chief of the Defence Force from one of the armed services; the current Chief of the Defence Force is Air Chief Marshal Angus Houston. In the 2006-07 budget, defence spending was A$22billion,[50] accounting for less than 1% of global military spending. Australia was placed 27th on the 2008 Global Peace Index, primarily due to its presence in Afghanistan.[51] While the Governor-General is the Commander-in-Chief of the Australian Defence Force, he or she does not play an active part in the ADF's command structure as the elected Australian Government controls the ADF.[52]

Geography

Climatic zones in Australia, based on the Koppen climate classification

Australia's landmass of 7,617,930square kilometres (2,941,300sqmi)[53] is on the Indo-Australian Plate. Surrounded by the IndianN4 and Pacific oceans, Australia is separated from Asia by the Arafura and Timor seas. The world's smallest continent[9] and sixth largest country by total area,[8] Australia - owing to its size and isolation - is often dubbed the 'island continent'[54] and variably considered the world's largest island.[55] Australia has 34,218kilometres (21,262mi) of coastline (excluding all offshore islands)[56] and claims an extensive Exclusive Economic Zone of 8,148,250square kilometres (3,146,060sqmi). This exclusive economic zone does not include the Australian Antarctic Territory.

The Great Barrier Reef, the world's largest coral reef,[57] lies a short distance off the north-east coast and extends for over 2,000kilometres (1,240mi). Mount Augustus, claimed to be the world's largest monolith,[58] is located in Western Australia. At 2,228metres (7,310ft), Mount Kosciuszko on the Great Dividing Range is the highest mountain on the Australian mainland, although Mawson Peak on the remote Australian territory of Heard Island is taller at 2,745metres (9,006ft).

By far the largest part of Australia is desert or semi-arid lands commonly known as the outback. Australia is the flattest continent, with the oldest and least fertile soils, and is the driest inhabited continent. Only the south-east and south-west corners of the continent have a temperate climate. The population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, is among the lowest in the world, although a great proportion of the population lives along the temperate south-eastern coastline.

The landscapes of the northern part of the country, with a tropical climate, consist of rainforest, woodland, grassland, mangrove swamps, and desert. The climate is significantly influenced by ocean currents, including the Indian Ocean Dipole and the El Nino-Southern Oscillation, which is correlated with periodic drought, and the seasonal tropical low pressure system that produces cyclones in northern Australia.[59]

Environment

Although most of Australia is semi-arid or desert, it includes a diverse range of habitats from alpine heaths to tropical rainforests, and is recognised as a megadiverse country. Because of the continent's great age, its extremely variable weather patterns, and its long-term geographic isolation, much of Australia's biota is unique and diverse. About 85% of flowering plants, 84% of mammals, more than 45% of birds, and 89% of in-shore, temperate-zone fish are endemic.[60] Australia has the greatest number of reptiles of any country, with 755 species.[61]

Many of Australia's ecoregions, and the species within those regions, are threatened by human activities and introduced plant and animal species. The federal Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 is a legal framework for the protection of threatened species. Numerous protected areas have been created under the national Biodiversity Action Plan to protect and preserve unique ecosystems; 64 wetlands are registered under the Ramsar Convention, and 15 natural World Heritage Sites have been established.[62] Australia was ranked 46th of 149 countries in the world on the 2008 Environmental Performance Index.[63] Australian forests often contain a wide variety of eucalyptus trees and are mostly located in higher rainfall regions.

Most Australian woody plant species are evergreen and many are adapted to fire and drought, including many eucalypts and acacias. Australia has a rich variety of endemic legume species that thrive in nutrient-poor soils because of their symbiosis with rhizobia bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi. Among well-known Australian fauna are the monotremes (the platypus and the echidna); a host of marsupials, including the kangaroo, the koala, and the wombat; the saltwater and freshwater crocodiles; and birds such as the emu and the kookaburra. Australia is home to many dangerous animals including some of the most venomous snakes in the world.[64] The dingo was introduced by Austronesian people who traded with Indigenous Australians around 3000 BCE.[65] Many plant and animal species became extinct soon after first human settlement,[66] including the Australian megafauna; others have become extinct since European settlement, among them the thylacine.[67]

Climate change has become an increasing concern in Australia in recent years,[68] with many Australians considering protection of the environment to be the most important issue facing the country.[69] The first Rudd Ministry has initiated several emission reduction activities;[70] Rudd's first official act, on his first day in office, was to sign the instrument of ratification of the Kyoto Protocol. Nevertheless Australia's carbon dioxide emissions per capita are one of the highest in the world, lower than only a few other industrialised nations including the United States and Canada. Rainfall in Australia has slightly increased over the past century, both nationwide and for two quadrants of the nation,[71] while annual mean temperatures increased significantly over the past decades.[72] Water restrictions are currently in place in many regions and cities of Australia in response to chronic shortages due to urban population increases and localised drought.[73]

Economy

The Super Pit in Kalgoorlie, Australia's largest open cut gold mine

The Australian dollar is the currency of the Commonwealth of Australia, including Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Norfolk Island, as well as the independent Pacific Island states of Kiribati, Nauru, and Tuvalu. After the 2006 merger of the Australian Stock Exchange and the Sydney Futures Exchange, the Australian Securities Exchange is now the 9th largest in the World.[74]

Australia is one of the most laissez-faire free market economies, according to indices of economic freedom. Australia's per capita GDP is slightly higher than that of the United States, UK, Germany, and France. The country was ranked second in the United Nations 2009 Human Development Index, first in Legatum's 2008 Prosperity Index, and sixth in The Economist worldwide Quality-of-Life Index for 2005. All of Australia's major cities fare well in global comparative liveability surveys;[75] Melbourne reached 2nd place on The Economist's 2008 World's Most Livable Cities list, followed by Perth at 4th, Adelaide at 7th, and Sydney at 9th.[76]

An emphasis on exporting commodities rather than manufactures has underpinned a significant increase in Australia's terms of trade during the rise in commodity prices since the start of the century. Australia has a balance of payments that is more than 7% of GDP negative, and has had persistently large current account deficits for more than 50 years.[77] Australia has grown at an average annual rate of 3.6% for over 15 years, a period in which the OECD annual average was 2.5%.[77] Australia did not fall into a technical recession during the late 2000s recession that affected most other Western countries [78]

Destination and value of Australian exports in 2006

The Hawke Government floated the Australian dollar in 1983 and partially deregulated the financial system.[79] The Howard Government followed with a partial deregulation of the labour market and the further privatisation of state-owned businesses, most notably in the telecommunications industry.[80] The indirect tax system was substantially changed in July 2000 with the introduction of a 10% Goods and Services Tax (GST), which has slightly reduced the reliance on personal and company income tax that characterises Australia's tax system.

In January 2007, there were 10,033,480people employed, with an unemployment rate of 4.6%.[81] Over the past decade, inflation has typically been 2-3% and the base interest rate 5-6%. The service sector of the economy, including tourism, education, and financial services, accounts for 69% of GDP.[82] Although agriculture and natural resources account for only 3% and 5% of GDP respectively, they contribute substantially to export performance. Australia's largest export markets are Japan, China, the US, South Korea, and New Zealand.[83]

Demography

Historic population[84]

Year

Indigenous population

pre 1788

350,000 approximate

Year

Non Indigenous population

Increase

1788

900

--

1800

5,200

477.8%

1850

405,400

7,696.2%

Year

Total population

Increase

1900

3,765,300

--

1910

4,525,100

20.2%

1920

5,411,000

19.6%

1930

6,501,000

20.1%

1940

7,078,000

8.9%

1950

8,307,000

17.4%

1960

10,392,000

25.1%

1970

12,663,000

21.9%

1980

14,726,000

16.3%

1990

17,169,000

16.6%

2000

19,169,100

11.6%

2009

21,828,704

13.6%

The Barossa Valley one of Australia's wine-producing regions in South Australia. Fewer than 15% of Australians live in rural areas.

Most of the estimated 22million Australians are descended from colonial-era settlers and post-Federation immigrants from Europe, with almost 90% of the population being of European descent. For generations, the vast majority of both colonial-era settlers and post-Federation immigrants came almost exclusively from the British Isles, and the people of Australia are still mainly of British or Irish ethnic origin. In the 2006 Australian Census, the most commonly nominated ancestry was Australian (37.13%),[85] followed by English (31.65%), Irish (9.08%), Scottish (7.56%), Italian (4.29%), German (4.09%), Chinese (3.37%), and Greek (1.84%).[86]

Australia's population has quadrupled since the end of World War I,[87] spurred by an ambitious immigration program. Following World War II and through to 2000, almost 5.9million of the total population settled in the country as new immigrants, meaning that nearly two out of every seven Australians were born overseas.[88] Most immigrants are skilled,[89] but the immigration quota includes categories for family members and refugees.[89]

In 2001, the five largest groups of the 23.1% of Australians who were born overseas were from the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Italy, Vietnam, and China.[83][90] Following the abolition of the White Australia policy in 1973, numerous government initiatives have been established to encourage and promote racial harmony based on a policy of multiculturalism.[91] In 2005-06, more than 131,000people emigrated to Australia, mainly from Asia and Oceania.[92] The migration target for 2006-07 was 144,000.[93] The total immigration quota for 2008-09 is around 300,000--its highest level since the Immigration Department was created after World War II.[94][95]

Nearly three quarters of Australians live in metropolitan cities and coastal areas. The beach is an integral part of the Australian identity.[96]

The Indigenous population--mainland Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders--was counted at 410,003 (2.2% of the total population) in 2001, a significant increase from the 1976 census, which counted an indigenous population of 115,953.[97] A large number of Indigenous people are not identified in the Census due to undercount and cases where their Indigenous status is not recorded on the form; after adjusting for these factors, the ABS estimated the true figure for 2001 to be approximately 460,140 (2.4% of the total population).[98]

Indigenous Australians experience higher than average rates of imprisonment and unemployment, lower levels of education, and life expectancies for males and females that are 11-17 years lower than those of non-indigenous Australians.[83][99][100] Some remote Indigenous communities have been described as having "failed state"-like conditions.[101][citation needed]

In common with many other developed countries, Australia is experiencing a demographic shift towards an older population, with more retirees and fewer people of working age. In 2004, the average age of the civilian population was 38.8 years.[102] A large number of Australians (759,849 for the period 2002-03)[103] live outside their home country.

Language

English is the national language.[104] Australian English is a major variety of the language. It has a unique accent and a small number of peculiar terms, some of which have found their way into other varieties of English. Australian English has less internal dialectal variation than British or American English. Grammar and spelling are largely based on those of British English. According to the 2001 census, English is the only language spoken in the home for around 80% of the population. The next most common languages spoken at home are Chinese (2.1%), Italian (1.9%), and Greek (1.4%).

A considerable proportion of first- and second-generation migrants are bilingual. It is believed that there were between 200 and 300 Indigenous Australian languages at the time of first European contact. Only about 70 of these languages have survived, and many are only spoken by older people; only 18 Indigenous languages are still spoken by all age groups.[105] An indigenous language remains the main language for about 50,000 (0.25%) people. Australia has a sign language known as Auslan, which is the main language of about 6,500 deaf people.

Religion

Australia has no state religion. In the 2006 census, 64% of Australians listed themselves as Christian, including 26% as Roman Catholic and 19% as Anglican. "No religion" (which includes humanism, atheism, agnosticism, and rationalism) accounted for 19% and is the fastest growing group (refer difference in census 2006 versus census 2001 results) and a further 12% declined to answer (the question is optional) or did not give a response adequate for interpretation. The second largest religion in Australia is Buddhism (2.1%), followed by Islam (1.7%), Hinduism (0.8%) and Judaism (0.5%). Overall less than 6% of Australians identify with non-Christian religions.[106] Weekly attendance at church services in 2004 was about 1.5 million: about 7.5% of the population,[107] and religion does not play a central role in the lives of a large portion of the population.[108]

Education

School attendance is compulsory throughout Australia. In most Australian States at 5-6 years of age all children receive 11 years of compulsory education, then can move on to complete two more years (Years 11 and 12), contributing to an adult literacy rate that is assumed to be 99%. In the Programme for International Student Assessment, Australia regularly scores among the top five of thirty major developped countries (member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). Government grants have supported the establishment of Australia's 38 universities the majority of universities receive government funding. There is a state-based system of vocational training, higher than colleges, known as TAFE Institutes, and many trades conduct apprenticeships for training new tradespeople. Approximately 58% of Australians aged from 25 to 64 have vocational or tertiary qualifications,[83] and the tertiary graduation rate of 49% is the highest among OECD countries. The ratio of international to local students in tertiary education in Australia is the highest in the OECD countries.[109]

Largest cities in Australia (2008 Australian Bureau of Statistics estimate)[110]

Rank

City Name

State

Pop.

Rank

City Name

State

Pop.

1

Sydney

NSW

4,399,722

11

Hobart

TAS

209,287

2

Melbourne

VIC

3,892,419

12

Geelong

VIC

172,300

3

Brisbane

QLD

1,945,639

13

Townsville

QLD

162,730

4

Perth

WA

1,602,559

14

Cairns

QLD

142,001

5

Adelaide

SA

1,172,105

15

Toowoomba

QLD

125,339

6

Gold Coast-Tweed

QLD / NSW

558,888

16

Darwin

NT

120,652

7

Newcastle

NSW

531,191

17

Launceston

TAS

104,649

8

Canberra-Queanbeyan

ACT / NSW

395,126

18

Albury-Wodonga

NSW / VIC

102,894

9

Wollongong

NSW

284,169

19

Ballarat

VIC

91,787

10

Sunshine Coast

QLD

237,562

20

Bendigo

VIC

88,031

Culture

Since 1788, the primary basis of Australian culture has been Anglo-Celtic Western culture. Distinctive Australian cultural features have also arisen from the country's natural environment and Indigenous cultures. Since the middle of the 20th century, Australian culture has been strongly influenced by American popular culture, particularly through television and cinema. Other cultural influences are from neighbouring Asian countries, and through large-scale immigration from non-English-speaking countries.

Australian visual arts are thought to have begun with the cave and bark paintings of its Indigenous peoples.[111] The traditions of Indigenous Australians are largely transmitted orally and are tied to ceremony and the telling of the stories of the Dreamtime. From the time of European settlement, a theme in Australian art has been the Australian landscape, seen for example in the works of Albert Namatjira, Arthur Streeton and others associated with the Heidelberg School, and Arthur Boyd. The country's landscape remains sources of inspiration for Australian modernist artists; it has been depicted in acclaimed works by artists such as Sidney Nolan, Grace Cossington Smith, Fred Williams, Sydney Long, and Clifton Pugh. Australian artists influenced by the modern American and European art include cubist Grace Crowley, surrealist James Gleeson, abstract expressionist Brett Whitely, and pop artist Martin Sharp. The National Gallery of Australia and the various state galleries maintain Australian and overseas collections, from early in the 20th century until the present,

Many of Australia's performing arts companies (see Theatre of Australia and Dance in Australia) receive funding through the federal government's Australia Council. There is a symphony orchestra in each of the states' capital cities, and a national opera company, Opera Australia, which became prominent through the singer Joan Sutherland. Nellie Melba was her famous predecessor. Ballet and dance are represented by The Australian Ballet and various state dance companies. Each state has a publicly funded theatre company.

Performance of Aboriginal song and dance in the Australian National Maritime Museum in Sydney

The Australian cinema industry began with the 1906 release of the Story of the Kelly Gang, which is regarded as being the world's first feature-length film.[112] The New Wave of Australian cinema in the 1970s brought provocative and successful films, some exploring the nation's colonial past, such as Picnic at Hanging Rock and Breaker Morant. Later hits included Mad Max and Gallipoli. More recent successes included Shine, Rabbit-Proof Fence, and Happy Feet. Australia's diverse landscapes and cities have served as primary locations for many other films, such as The Matrix, Peter Pan, Superman Returns, and Finding Nemo. Recent well-known Australian actors include Judith Anderson, Errol Flynn, Nicole Kidman, Hugh Jackman, Heath Ledger, Geoffrey Rush, Toni Collette, Naomi Watts, and current joint director of the Sydney Theatre Company, Cate Blanchett.

Australian literature has also been influenced by the landscape; the works of writers such as Banjo Paterson, Henry Lawson, and Dorothea Mackellar captured the experience of the Australian bush. The character of colonial Australia, as represented in early literature, is popular with modern Australians. In 1973, Patrick White was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, the only Australian to have achieved this. Colleen McCullough, Thomas Keneally, David Williamson, and David Malouf are also renowned writers.

Australia has two public broadcasters (the Australian Broadcasting Corporation and the multicultural Special Broadcasting Service), three commercial television networks, several pay-TV services, and numerous public, non-profit television and radio stations (see Television in Australia and Media of Australia). Each major city has daily newspapers, and there are two national daily newspapers, The Australian and The Australian Financial Review. According to Reporters Without Borders in 2008, Australia was in 25th position on a list of 173 countries ranked by press freedom, behind New Zealand (7th) and the United Kingdom (23rd) but ahead of the United States (48th). This low ranking is primarily because of the limited diversity of commercial media ownership in Australia;[113] in particular, most Australian print media are under the control of News Corporation and Fairfax Media.

Australian food traditions have been shaped by those that have settled in Australia. Throughout the majority of Australian history, Australian cuisine was based on traditional British food, brought to the country by the first British settlers. Later, in the 19th and especially 20th century, food began to reflect the influences of Mediterranean and Asian cultures, introduced by many immigrants who arrived in Australia during this period.

Cricket has been an important part of Australia's sporting culture since the 19th Century

Approximately 24% Australians over the age of 15 regularly participate in organised sporting activities in Australia.[83] Australia has strong international teams in cricket, soccer / football, field hockey, netball, rugby league, rugby union, and performs well in cycling, rowing, and swimming. Some of Australia's most successful sportspersons are swimmers Dawn Fraser, Murray Rose, and Ian Thorpe, sprinter Betty Cuthbert, tennis players Rod Laver and Margaret Court, and cricketer Donald Bradman. Nationally, other popular sports include Australian rules football, horse racing, surfing, football (soccer), and motor racing. Australia has participated in every summer Olympic Games of the modern era, and every Commonwealth Games. Australia hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics in Melbourne and the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, and has ranked among the top six medal-takers since 2000.[114] Australia has also hosted the 1938, 1962, 1982, and 2006 Commonwealth Games. Other major international events held in Australia include the Grand Slam Australian Open tennis tournament, international cricket matches, and the Formula One Australian Grand Prix. The highest-rating television programs include sports coverage such as the summer Olympic Games, State of Origin, and the grand finals of the National Rugby League and Australian Football League.[115]



Похожие работы:
Воспользоваться поиском



Скачать работу: Ekonomiko-geographical description of Australia, 2017 г.

Перейти в список рефератов, курсовых, контрольных и дипломов по
         дисциплине География и экономическая география